Women were more passive and less criminally capable. Less flatteringly, The Criminality of Women also claimed that women prefer professions like maids, nurses, teachers, and homemakers so that they can engage in undetectable crime. Further, those of the feminist school of criminology claim that men are the dominant group and the standard of normality and have maintained inequality through control of the definition of deviance and of the institutions of social control.
Crime and Justice in the Twenty First Century. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Strain theories are criticised by feminists as betraying a double standard. International Thomson Publishing, California. Otto pollak chivalry thesis Instead, they are admitted to the justice system charged with committing different crimes.
A study by Allen, based upon an examination of crime statistics, found evidence that women sometimes escape prison in very serious cases, where a male may have been expected to receive a prison term. Unmarried women or those in unconventional relationships tended to receive more harsh treatment, confirming a sentencing model based a cultural need to reinforce gender roles within a framework of heterosexual marriage or family life.
Carlen argues that Adler's 'new female criminal' is cast as the 'biological female' who is essentially masculine. Smart argues that the differences that exist between males and females are of little importance in the study of crime as the factors that cause crime are "culturally determinate rather than a reflection of the natural qualities of the sexes" They would point out that selective law is not only tied to gender but also to social class thus suggesting that interactionist feminist theory only offers a partial view of gender differences in patterns of offending, victimisation and punishments.
Cohenand Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin. This approach has been criticised as it assumes any female that varies from the traditional female role is criminal or likely criminal and it assumes that there is a large and significant difference between men and women. Unmarried women or those in unconventional relationships tended to receive more harsh treatment, confirming a sentencing model based a cultural need to reinforce gender roles within a framework of heterosexual marriage or family life.
Thus, the degree to which a female offender can be shown to be under informal social control may produce a lighter formal sentence.
Provide at least two suggestions on ways to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. When male offenders commit a crime under certain conditions of opportunity blockage, their commission of crime is somehow seen as a "normal" or functional response.
When women commit crime, Strain Theory views it as some sort of "weakness". Naffine argues that women have been defined as different from men and, hence, inferior; that stigma has acted to deny them their full civil rights and access to societal resources Naffine: In any event, women are more afraid to go out of the home after dark because they fear aggressive male behaviour.
It occurs as the result of a calculation. Chivalry was the code of honour of the medieval aristocracy and the knights. The smallest increases in arrests coincided with periods of the greatest increase in economic activity with the most common offence being that of shop lifting.
One theory to support this would be the chivalry thesis. The chivalry thesis claims that woman do not get prosecuted because the criminal justice system is biased towards them, as it is dominated by males and males are socialised to be chivalrous towards females.
Otto Pollak argues that men have protective attitudes towards woman which. Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of gender differences in the patterns of crime. (21 marks) Gender differences in official statistics have been debated and argued over for a long while because there is no definitive answer for why there seems to be a difference.
Feminist school of criminology: | | | Part of |a series| on | | | | World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available. Otto Pollak This is a picture of my dad Otto Pollak. I don't know where or when exactly it was taken but it had to be during World War I when.
Later, Otto Pollak () claimed that men were socialised to treat women in a fatherly and protective manner. Female offenders were like their mothers and wives, and the male judiciary could not imagine them behaving in a criminal way.
Feminist criminology challenged 'malestream' criminology. Later, Otto Pollak () claimed that men were socialised to treat women in a fatherly and protective manner. Female offenders were like their mothers and wives, and the male judiciary couldn't imagine them behaving in a criminal way.Otto pollak chivalry thesis